quality. community. RESOURCES.

Annotated Bibliography of Resources on Doctoral Education

This resources list can quickly become out of date, and there may be some very important and beneficial resources that we have missed.  We invite you to submit recommendations for additional or updated listings to Dr. Kevin Lawson, Co-chair of the Doctoral Initiative Steering Committee for ICETE.  You can reach him at: kevin.lawson@biola.edu

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Below you will find a variety of resources addressing issues relevant for the development of strong doctoral education programs.  I have provided a short paragraph about each resource to help you understand what it addresses and what it might be helpful for.  The resources are organized in the following major sections:

I. ICETE/LANDHAM RESOURCES: A few resources developed specifically for doctoral education development in the majority world context.

II. DOCTORAL DISSERTATION QUALITIES AND ASSESSMENT ISSUES: A few resources on quality guidelines for students’ final research projects, based on data collected from a large number of dissertation supervisors.

III. “COUNCIL OF GRADUATE SCHOOLS” MATERIALS: A host of materials from the major group in the U.S. context addressing issues of doctoral education and how it is carried out.  While this may not match the doctoral education models in some other contexts, the issues are similar and these resources may be helpful.

IV. VARIOUS RESOURCES ON A RANGE OF DOCTORAL ED. ISSUES: Several items gathered from various publishers and contexts relevant for doctoral education development and renewal.

V. VIRTUE/CHARACTER FORMATION IN CHRISTIAN HIGHER EDUCATION: A few publications addressing the development of character and intellectual virtues for Christians in the midst of learning, research, writing, and teaching.

VI. BOOKS ON ONLINE EDUCATION FROM A CHRISTIAN PERSPECTIVE: A few books on the development and practice of online education from a Christian higher education perspective.


  • Comparing Doctoral Education Models
  • Doctoral Education in Europe
  • Doctoral Education in Africa
  • Doctoral Education in Latin America and the Caribbean
  • Doctoral Education in Asia
  • Doctoral Education in North America
  • General Resources (Journals, Websites)


The Beirut Benchmarks. (2010). ICETE Doctoral Consultation, Beirut, Lebanon.

[Available online: https://www.icete.info/resources/the-beirut-benchmarks.  Available in Arabic, English, French, Korean, Portuguese, Spanish.  Russian and Chinese translations in process.]

An important statement concerning the qualities that should present in doctoral study in an evangelical Christian institution.  This statement, and the adaptation for professional doctoral degree programs, were developed through a series of consultations sponsored by ICETE.  This statement was the work of 23 theological education leaders from around the world.  It has been endorsed by: the Governing Board for ICETE, Langham Partnership International (LPI), Overseas Council International (OCI), Asia Theological Association (ATA), Association for Evangelical Theological Education in Latin America (AETAL), Euro-Asian Accrediting Association (EAAA), South Pacific Association of Evangelical Colleges (SPAEC), Accrediting Council for Theological Education in Africa (ACTEA), Caribbean Evangelical Theological Association (CETA), European Evangelical Accrediting Association (EEAA, and Association for Biblical Higher Education (ABHE)

Handbook for Supervisors of Doctoral Students in Evangelical Theological Institutions. Ian J. Shaw with Kevin E. Lawson. (2015). Carlisle, Cumbria, UK: Langham Global Library.

A very practical and reflective book on what supervisors need to understand and do as they work with their students toward the successful completion of their dissertation research, writing, and defense.  The book addresses theological foundations and educational theory that inform best practice.  Each chapter has questions for reflection, exercises, and case studies to help faculty develop better approaches to their work with their students.  Unlike any other book on this topic, this one has a strong focus on the spiritual and pastoral aspects of supervision work, making it an excellent resource for faculty to read on their own or discuss together as they seek to grow in effectiveness as research supervisors.

Best Practice Guidelines for Doctoral Programs. Ian J. Shaw with Scott Cunningham and Bernhard Ott. (2015). Carlisle, Cumbria, UK: Langham Global Library.

Beginning in Beirut in 2010, ICETE’s Doctoral Initiative has been working to develop and provide resources and training to support the growth of doctoral education in evangelical schools in the Majority World context.  This book, which includes the Beirut Benchmarks for both research and professional doctoral programs, presents a brief overview of best practices that help schools flesh out the Benchmarks and develop strong educational programs. Built around 21 principles of best practice in doctoral education, the book offers practical advice on how to achieve each of the principles well.  This is truly a foundational resource for schools seeking to develop and/or assess the doctoral programs they offer.

Challenging Tradition: Innovation in Advanced Theological Education. Perry Shaw and Havilah Dharamraj. (Eds.). (2018). Carlisle, Cumbria, UK: Langham Global Library.

A stimulating and provocative collection of articles.  The contributors to this book explore a range of issues regarding how doctoral programs are designed and carried out, with attention to challenges of contextualization, integrative studies, “doctoral” standards, and alternatives to the traditional dissertation.  With contributors from many different regions of the world, examples of innovative dissertation models and program design are offered, including the possible use of oral learning models in the research process and dissertation format (e.g., stories, proverbs, poetry).  With doctoral education growing in the majority world context, including in Christian educational institutions, this book helps us work through some of our assumptions regarding doctoral education and offers ideas worth considering that go beyond what many of us may have experienced.


 Making the implicit explicit: Creating performance expectations for the dissertation. Barbara E. Lovitts. (2007). Sterling, VA: Stylus.

Based on interviews and focus groups with experienced doctoral research supervisors, Lovitts provides a detailed review of the expected characteristics and qualities of research (PhD) dissertations and provides models for how to assess dissertations in ten different fields of study.  Evaluation rubrics are provided distinguishing “outstanding” work from “very good,” “acceptable,” and “unacceptable.”

Developing quality dissertations in the social sciences: A graduate student’s guide to achieving excellence. Barbara E. Lovitts and Ellen L. Wert. (2009). Sterling, VA: Stylus.

Written for the graduate student, but also beneficial for the research supervisor, This booklet discusses the purpose of the dissertation in the social sciences, what is meant by “original and significant” research, and the qualities of excellent research and how to achieve them.

Developing quality dissertations in the humanities: A graduate student’s guide to achieving excellence. Barbara E. Lovitts and Ellen L. Wert. (2009). Sterling, VA: Stylus.

Written for the graduate student, but also beneficial for the research supervisor, This booklet discusses the purpose of the dissertation in the humanities, what is meant by “original and significant” research, and the qualities of excellent research and how to achieve them.


Mission:  For more than five decades, the Council of Graduate Schools (CGS) has been the national voice for the graduate dean community in the United States. CGS is the only national organization in the United States that is dedicated solely to the advancement of graduate education and research. CGS accomplishes its mission through advocacy in the policy arena, innovative research, and the development and dissemination of best practices. CGS also acts as a convening authority, organizing major events that bring together graduate deans and other stakeholders to discuss and take action on a broad range of issues affecting graduate education today.

Their Members: The core of CGS membership consists of our institutional members, universities and colleges significantly engaged in graduate education, research, and scholarship culminating in the award of the master’s or doctoral degree. Approximately 500 universities in the United States and Canada, and 26 universities outside the United States and Canada claim membership in CGS. Collectively, CGS institutions annually award roughly 87% of all U.S. doctorates and a majority of all U.S. master’s degrees.

Resources:  The CGS publishes a range of resources on important aspects of graduate education.  The following items have been identified as potentially relevant to the development of strong doctoral education.

 A. “Global Perspectives” Series from the Council of Graduate Schools

Global Perspectives on Graduate Education: Proceedings of the Strategic Leaders Global Summit on Graduate Education. (2008). Washington, D.C.: Council of Graduate Schools.

The first-ever Strategic Leaders Global Summit on Graduate Education took place in Banff, Canada in 2007, the product of a partnership between CGS and the Province of Alberta. These proceedings tell the story of shared concerns about the challenges of a rapidly changing global environment and new approaches to addressing those challenges. The proceedings also indicate the optimism these leaders hold for the power of partnership in effectively responding to the new demands on graduate education from within and outside the academy.

Global Perspectives on Research Ethics and Scholarly Integrity: Proceedings of the 2008 Strategic Leaders Global Summit on Graduate Education. (2009). Washington, D.C.: Council of Graduate Schools.

The second Strategic Leaders Global Summit on Graduate Education took place in Florence, Italy in 2008, and addressed global issues shaping research ethics and scholarly integrity. In these proceedings, graduate leaders representing ten countries explain how their institutions are confronting key questions: What new strategies exist for educating a multinational or multicultural community for careers in research? What can graduate leaders do to ensure that international publishing environments are held to high standards of accountability? In addition to answering these and other questions, this volume identifies exciting new opportunities for international collaboration around issues of research ethics.

Global Perspectives on Graduate International Collaborations: Proceedings of the 2009 Strategic Leaders Global Summit on Graduate Education. (2010). Washington, D.C.: Council of Graduate Schools.

The third annual Strategic Leaders Global Summit on Graduate Education addressed the need for international coordination on the purposes and practices surrounding graduate international collaborations. In these proceedings, graduate leaders from Australia, Belgium, Canada, China, France, South Korea, the Middle East, the U.K., and the U.S. provide background on the forces shaping joint and dual degrees and research collaborations in their countries and regions. This volume features essays presented by participants, summaries of the dynamic discussions that took place at the summit, and a set of international guidelines agreed upon by summit participants, “Principles and Practices for Developing Effective International Collaborations.”

Global Perspectives on Measuring Quality: Proceedings of the 2010 Strategic Leaders Global Summit on Graduate Education. (2011). Washington, D.C.: Council of Graduate Schools.

The 2010 Strategic Leaders Global Summit was held in Brisbane, Australia, and addressed the challenging topic of measuring quality in graduate education. Representing the contributions of graduate education leaders in 17 countries, these proceedings highlight a variety of emerging best practices for program and institutional assessment. Special attention is given to communicating with campus stakeholders and planning assessment-based interventions in the areas of mentoring, research training, and professional development for graduate students. 

Global Perspectives on Career Outcomes for Graduate Students: Teaching and Building Pathways. (2012). Washington, D.C.: Council of Graduate Schools.

The Fifth Annual Strategic Leaders Global Summit on Graduate Education brought together graduate leaders from 16 countries to address professional skills and career outcomes for graduate students. These proceedings provide brief essays on emerging best practices for improving the professionalization and employability of students. Readers will find summaries of rich discussions of topics such as integrating workforce demands into degree design and evaluation, developing professional development programs, and defining specific and transferable skills.

B. Other Council of Graduate Schools Resources Relevant for Doctoral Education

Best Practices in Graduate Education for the Responsible Conduct of Research. (2008). Washington, D.C.: Council of Graduate Schools.

This publication documents the results of a collaborative project, supported by a grant from NSF, between CGS and eight universities to identify best practices in the development of research ethics programs for graduate students in science and engineering. Topics addressed include curricular approaches, program sustainability, considerations specific to master’s-focused institutions, and assessment.

Assessment and Review of Graduate Programs: A Policy Statement. (2011). Washington, D.C.: Council of Graduate Schools.

Definitive guide on the purposes, processes and practice of graduate program review. Revised in 2011, discusses graduate program review and student learning outcomes assessment, with brief discussion of managing data analysis to inform strategic decisions at the university level for improving graduate education. 

Articulating Learning Outcomes in Doctoral Education. (2017). Washington, D.C.: Council of Graduate Schools.

Once associated with undergraduate education, learning outcomes—the knowledge, skills, attitudes and competencies that a degree holder can expect to attain by the end of a degree program—are becoming more central to graduate programs, including PhD programs. This publication reports on a CGS study supported by Lumina Foundation that included surveys and interviews with leaders in higher education and accreditors, and a day-long convening of higher education leaders.

The Doctor of Philosophy Degree: A Policy Statement. (2005). Washington, D.C.: Council of Graduate Schools.

A broad overview and policy statement useful to anyone interested in Ph.D. education. Revised in 2005.

An Essential Guide to Graduate Admissions. (2012). Washington, D.C.: Council of Graduate Schools.

This publication identifies good practices in graduate admissions and graduate enrollment management. Topics addressed include organizational structures and university-wide policies and procedures, departmental guidelines, and legal and financial issues. This 2012 revision includes new discussion of: “enrollment management” as opposed to a narrow “admissions” approach, international student recruiting, and recent changes affecting affirmative action/diversity efforts.

Graduate Education for the Responsible Conduct of Research. (2006). Washington, D.C.: Council of Graduate Schools.

This publication identifies “best practices” in responsible conduct of research (RCR) education and is aimed at helping graduate deans, department chairs, and faculty members establish and sustain educational programs that foster RCR on their campuses.

Joint Degrees, Dual Degrees, and International Research Collaborations: A Report on the CGS Graduate International Collaborations Project. (2010). Washington, D.C.: Council of Graduate Schools.

Joint degrees, dual degrees, and international research collaborations hold out exciting opportunities for North American universities, but they also present many challenges and questions. This publication reviews what is currently known about graduate international collaborations, what the current gaps in our understanding are, and what areas call for greater clarification. Includes findings from a CGS NSF-funded project, problem-solving scenarios, information about print and online resources, and a checklist for Memoranda of Understanding.

On the Right Track: A Manual for Research Mentors. (2003). Washington, D.C.: Council of Graduate Schools.

Discusses the individual and corporate responsibilities of graduate faculty in producing competent scholars capable of conducting independent, original, and ethically sound research.

Online Graduate Education. (2013). Washington, D.C.: Council of Graduate Schools.

This practical guide for graduate deans and administrators supports the development of quality distance education programs that are aligned with institutional mission and strategic direction. Touching on a range of issues from faculty professional development to assessment, accreditation, and financial structure, Online Graduate Education addresses the administrative policies and practices for improving access, cost-effectiveness and quality.

Organization and Administration of Graduate Education. (2004). Washington, D.C.: Council of Graduate Schools.

This revised booklet presents guidelines for administering graduate education in the U.S. and Canada. Relationship to research, structural elements, and activities are all considered.

Ph.D. Completion and Attrition: Policies and Practices to Promote Student Success. (2010). Washington, D.C.: Council of Graduate Schools.

This is the fourth in a series of monographs from the CGS Ph.D. Completion Project. This monograph reports on policies and practices at participating institutions that aim to improve Ph.D. completion rates and reduce attrition in doctoral programs. These policies and practices are categorized into six broad institutional and programmatic categories: selection and admissions; mentoring and advising; financial support; research mode of the field; curricular and administrative processes and procedures; and program environment.

Research Student and Supervisor. (2009). Washington, D.C.: Council of Graduate Schools.

This revised document provides guidelines for supervision at each stage of graduate study and highlights ways to make graduate students and supervisors more aware of their respective responsibilities in the Ph.D. process. Includes a checklist of good supervisory practice.

Task Force Report on the Professional Doctorate. (2008). Washington, D.C.: Council of Graduate Schools.

The first publication reports on the conclusions of a Task Force on the Professional Doctorate, established by CGS in 2005. The report describes opportunities and challenges that accompany growth in these degrees, and calls for graduate deans to play a leadership role in their development and oversight.


Envisioning the future of doctoral education: Preparing stewards of the discipline. Chris M. Golde, George E. Walker (Eds.). (2006). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Essays commissioned for the Carnegie Initiative on the Doctorate.  Authors responded to the question: “If you could start de novo, what would be the best way to structure doctoral education in your field to prepare stewards of the discipline?”  Includes helpful general essays and more focused essays in different fields of study: chemistry, education, English, history, mathematics, and neuroscience.  This was a major project by the Carnegie Initiative on the Doctorate and has had significant impact on doctoral education in the USA context.

Reshaping doctoral education: International approaches and pedagogies. Alison Lee and Susan Danby (Eds.). (2012). London, UK: Routledge.

Looks at the growth of doctoral education internationally and the emerging practices being tried out in different programs.  Contributors from the Australia, China, Denmark, New Zealand, South Africa, Sweden, UK, and USA.  Addresses issues of: changing nature of doctoral education, the need for systematic and principles accounts of doctoral pedagogies, importance of disciplinary specificity, relationship between pedagogy and knowledge generation, and issues of transdisciplinarity in doctoral education.

Changing practices of doctoral education. David Boud and Alison Lee. (Eds.). (2009). London, UK: Routledge.

As indicated by the title, the book reviews the kinds of international and disciplinary changes that are impacting doctoral education.  Addresses newer international trends in doctoral education; identifies new practices in supervision, research, teaching and learning; examines the purposes of doctoral study and how they are changing; and considers issues of the formation of researchers and the conduct of original research.  May be helpful both for assessing existing programs and designing new ones.

A handbook for doctoral supervisors. Stan Taylor and Nigel Beasley. (2005). London, UK: Routledge.

Written from the British dissertation model perspective, the book is an extremely helpful book on a range of issues, and provides examples from schools in several countries for each of the major issues discussed.  The book has six parts: (1) changing contexts of doctoral supervision; (2) recruiting, selecting and working with doctoral candidates; (3) supporting the research project; (4) supporting candidates of all nationalities and academic backgrounds; (5) supporting completion of projects and examination; and (6) evaluation and dissemination of good practice.  Includes a helpful section on evaluating the dissertation supervision that faculty offer students.

Advising & mentoring doctoral students: A handbook. Susan K Gardner & Benita J. Barnes. (2014). San Bernardino, CA: Amazon Digital Services.

A short and practical book addressing the work of faculty with doctoral students at each phase of the program:  Recruitment, Admission, Entrance, First Year, Examinations, Dissertation Research, Job Search, and Beyond.  The authors discuss differences in student needs based on gender, race, age, whether they are part-time or full-time students, international students, and other groups.  Also looks at issues of ethics in working with doctoral students and dealing with difficult situations.

The development of doctoral students: Phases of challenge and support. Susan K. Gardner. (2009). ASHE Higher Education Report, 34(6). San Francisco, CA: Wiley Periodicals.

Written with a focus on the USA context, the book provides an overview of the ways that doctoral students tend to develop over the course of their time in their doctoral programs.  Recognizing that only a little over 50% of all those who begin doctoral programs complete them, Gardner offers perspectives on student development issues as they begin their studies, through their coursework, and as they begin their dissertation research and writing.  Implications for faculty work with students in each phase of their program are offered.

Rethinking the dissertation process: Tackling personal and institutional obstacles. Lester F. Goodchild, Kathy E. Green, Elinor L. Katz, and Raymond C. Kluever. (Eds.). (Fall, 1997). New Directions for Higher Education, No. 99. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass Publishers.

A collection of essays on a range of issues regarding the Ph.D. dissertation.  Provides some history of the development of the USA dissertation model, barriers to student completion of their dissertations, and ways faculty can work with students to help them complete their dissertations.

Helping doctoral students write: Pedagogies for supervision. Barbara Kamler and Pat Thomson. (2006). London, UK: Routledge.

Addresses ways of guiding and giving feedback to students to help them with both research and writing, and building a community where students grow as writers. Practical advice is given for helping students with writing a proposal, developing a literature review, and constructing a dissertation argument.

The formation of scholars: Rethinking doctoral education for the twenty-first century. George E. Walker, Chris M. Golde, Laura Jones, Andrea Conklin Bueschedl, Pat Hutchings. (2008). San Francisco, CA: Wiley Periodicals.

Drawing on surveys of both doctoral faculty and doctoral students, the book addresses issues of doctoral program goals, effectiveness, and ways in which it is changing or may need change if we are to develop teaching and researching scholars.

The assessment of doctoral education: Emerging criteria and new models for improving outcomes. Peggy L. Maki and Nancy A. Borkowski. (Eds.). (2006). Sterling, VA: Stylus.

A very helpful book to help think through the intended learning outcomes of doctoral education and ways they may be assessed.  Discusses ways of using the assessment process to improve doctoral programs, ways of using portfolios to help with assessment, student perspectives on doctoral program assessment, and an approach to the assessment of the dissertation (chapter by Barbara Lovitt, author of three other books on this topic noted elsewhere in this bibliography).


Virtuous minds: Intellectual character development. Philip E. Dow. (2013). Downers Grove, IL: IVP Academic.

Though written for a lower level Christian school context, the author offers excellent reflections on the kinds of “intellectual virtues” that should be modeled and developed by Christians engaging in scholarly work.  Dow identifies seven intellectual virtues he feels are critical to develop: intellectual courage, intellectual carefulness, intellectual tenacity, intellectual fair-mindedness, intellectual curiosity, intellectual honesty, and intellectual humility.  The author also discusses ways that educators can help students develop these virtues, and the kind of “fruit” that these virtues lead to.  An excellent resource for thinking about the kind of spiritual and character development we want to pursue in doctoral education within a Christian institution.

Excellence: The character of God and the pursuit of scholarly virtue. Andreas J. Kostenberger. (2011). Wheaton, IL: Crossway.

Provides theological foundations for the pursuit of excellence in our scholarship and the development of virtues that have implications for our work of research, writing, teaching, and working with others. Based on an understanding of God’s character, and a foundation of our call to holiness and spiritual growth, Kostenberger explores the development of these virtues:

Vocational Excellence: Diligence, Courage, Passion, Restraint, Creativity, Eloquence

Moral Excellence: Integrity, Fidelity, Wisdom

Relational Excellence: Grace, Humility, Interdependence, Love


Best Practices of Online Education: A Guide for Christian Higher Education. Mark A. Maddix, James R. Estep, and Mary E. Lowe. (Eds.). (2012). Charlotte, NC: Information Age Publishing.

As more Christian universities, Bible colleges, and seminaries develop online study options there is a need for faculty to “retool” their teaching approaches for the online teaching/learning context.  This book contains seventeen chapters addressing a wide range of issues and practices that can strengthen teaching and learning online.  Issues such as: adult learning theory and online learning, developing online learning communities, spiritual formation in online education, opportunities and challenges for online theological education, best pedagogical practices, faculty development, evaluating course management systems, online course design issues, and assessing learning online.  Highly practical, well grounded, and offering encouragement for those who are unsure about shifting to teaching online.

Ecologies of Faith in a Digital Age: Spiritual Growth Through Online Education. Stephen D. Lowe and Mary E. Lowe. (2018). Downers Grove, IL: IVP Academic.

An important aspect of Christian higher education is the support of spiritual growth in the midst of the academic work faculty and students are called to pursue.  Many faculty have been skeptical about the opportunities for spiritual growth in online education.  The Lowes have studied, experimented, and written on ways to support spiritual formation through online interaction.  Using an “ecology” motif, they examine ways of developing social networks online that support the kinds of “one anothers” described in the New Testament, fostering stronger connections with Christ, with fellow learners, and stimulating and supporting the process of sanctification.  An important resource to read if you are considering developing online courses and online advising as part of your doctoral program experience.


The following list of resources, mainly available online, have been identified as potentially beneficial for schools seeking to develop doctoral programs that are sensitive to approaches, models, and educational expectations of educational organizations shaping doctoral education within their regions.  There is a lot we can learn from others doing similar work in similar settings.

Comparing Doctoral Education Models:

Doctoral education in Europe and North America: A comparative analysis. Barbara M. Kehm

Chapter in Teichler, U. (Ed.), The Formative Years of Scholars. Series: Wenner-Gren International Series (83). Portland Press: London, pp. 67-78.

Link: http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=

A comparison of best practices for doctoral training in Europe and North America. Joey V. Barnett, Robert A. Harris, and Michael J. Mulvany. FEBS Open Bio. 2017 October; 7(10): 1444-1452.

Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5623696/

Doctoral Education in Europe:

Bologna Process, European Higher Education Area:  Third Cycle 2007-2009

Provides an overview of the higher educational reform movement in Europe and the initial work done on doctoral education issues within the Bologna Process.  The site provides links to other doctoral education websites, but has not been updated since 2009.  Internet searches using “Bologna Process Third Cycle” will yield several helpful sites and articles about doctoral education development in Europe.

Website:  http://www.ehea.info/cid102847/third-cycle-doctoral-education-2009.html

European University Association – Council for Doctoral Education

This organization is only a few years old and it sponsors conferences and workshops on doctoral education issues.  They also publish reports available at their website, showing trends in doctoral education in the European context.  Very active and up to date.

Website:  https://eua-cde.org

Comparative Analysis of Doctoral Education in Europe

Sabic, N. (2014). Comparative Analysis of Doctoral Education in Europe. Annals of the University of Bucharest / Political science series16(1), 129-147.


European University Institute. Reforming the Doctorate in the Social Sciences: A Report on Good Practice. Italy, 2017.

Report of a Task Force on doctoral education identifying examples and elements of good practice.  The report revolves around eight structural principles for doctoral education in the social sciences and examines good practices in each area.

Link: https://www.eui.eu/Documents/ServicesAdmin/DeanOfStudies/ReformingtheDoctorate.pdf

Doctoral Education in Africa:

International Association of Universities, Innovative Approaches to Doctoral Education in Africa (IDEA).  This website provides access to a variety of articles addressing doctoral education issues and approaches in the African context.

Website:  https://www.idea-phd.net/index.php/en/state-of-doctoral-education-in-africa

Doctoral Education in Latin America and the Caribbean:

Regional and International Challenges to Higher Education in Latin America. An article on the growth of higher education, including graduate studies, in the Latin American context.

Website: http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTLACREGTOPEDUCATION/Resources/Overview_of_HE_in_LAC.pdf

Doctoral Education in Asia:

Challenges for Doctoral Education in East Asia: A global and comparative perspective.  Asia Pacific Education Review, 19 (2), pp. 141-155.  J. C. Shin, Gerard A. Postiglione, K. C. Ho

Abstract: East Asian higher education is experiencing a massive growth in doctoral education with the world-class university initiatives. The growth of doctoral education in the region is remarkable especially as seen in the Chinese system which became positioned as the world’s second largest doctoral degree-granting system. Yet, there are growing issues in doctoral education related to system reform, graduate employment in a changing job market, program quality, research funding, and even the identity of doctoral education (professional training vs. training next generation scholars). These are globally emerging issues for policy makers and higher education scholars. This article will encourage academic discussions on the challenges and global trends in doctoral education from the comparative perspective of Anglo-American and European systems.

Website: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s12564-018-9527-8

Doctoral Education in North America:

Council of Graduate Schools website:  https://cgsnet.org

The Council of Graduate Schools includes about 500 universities, mostly in the North American context, and addresses a wide range of issues regarding graduate education.  They sponsor annual conferences, regional conferences, have published many resources on graduate education issues (see the list of relevant resources in the “Annotated Bibliography of Books on Doctoral Education” also available from ICETE).  Member schools are responsible for about 87% of all doctoral degrees awarded in the North American setting and most masters degrees as well.  This is a very helpful organization with practical resources.  Their materials tend to be expensive, but well worth reading and learning from.

Carnegie Project on the Education Doctorate:  https://www.cpedinitiative.org

The Carnegie Foundation has put a lot of work into exploring issues and encouraging reform in doctoral education in North America.  This particular project focuses on redevelopment of the Doctor of Education (EdD) degree program in the USA.  Many universities participated in the project and they continue to publish what they have been learning about this particular kind of professional doctoral degree, and new models for carrying it out.  This provides a helpful perspective on how this degree is developing in the USA.

General Sources:

The International Higher Education Journal is a good publication for understanding the kinds of issues impacting higher education in different regions of the world, and the common issues that schools in all regions have to address